Living Universe | Journey To Another Stars

Aceasta este o viziune a viitorului nostru Ziua îndrăzneață într-un colț al Universului când o sonda de pe Pământ Inițiază prima coborâre într-o lume străină Căutați dovada vieții dincolo de sistemul nostru solar Nu există martori, nici mulțime de aplauze în camera de control a Decada sau mai mult va trece înainte ca știrile să ajungă în cele din urmă peste oceanele întunecate ale spațiului Dar semințele acestei misiuni sunt deja vândute astăzi Prin prima generație de oameni de știință suficient de îndrăzneți să creadă că ar fi posibil Când mă uit în sus pe cer și nu văd stele. Văd sistemele planetare Fidel trebuie să înțelegem că călătoria spre planeta ISO nu este limitată de legile fizicii Arată două planete care orbitează stele îndepărtate Căutarea unui răspuns la cea mai veche întrebare umană. Suntem singuri? Există viață în alte lumi și dacă nu, de ce nu și cum da?  Aceasta este prima generație din istoria omenirii, unde avem textul de abilități tehnologice pentru a merge și a răspunde la această mare întrebare Aceasta este povestea omenirii Lansat în frontiera finală de o nouă rasă de aventurieri, planeta vânează ingineri exploratorii și visătorii făcând primii pași pe o călătorie interstelară ei nu vor completa acest lucru călătorii de ani și vieți similare unui alt pământ în jurul celuilalt nu am fi putut fi falsificați în mișcările muribunde ale stelelor și Creat în acea explozie extraordinară și acum ne întoarcem spatele Privind pentru alte creaturi care au fost formate în același mod eu am Artemis explorare robotică autonomă mamă pentru spațiul interstelar I Sunt în faza finală a construcției în zona de cooperare internațională a orbitei Pământului M-am născut din bărbat și din femeie și amândoi am fost Dar nu sunt nici unul eu Sunt prima căutare a vieții pe o planetă din afara sistemului nostru solar sunt acasa A fost o viață pe pământ în cea mai bună parte de patru miliarde de ani Minunata biosferă complexă Creat în formă și reformat de forțele mereu schimbatoare ale planetei noastre De la începutul științei, am căutat viață și am studiat diversitatea sa remarcabilă pe fiecare centimetru al globului Tehnologia secolului al XX-lea ne-a căutat în spațiu, pe măsură ce ne-am curățat planetele vecine semnele unei Genesis secunde Și sa întors cu mâna goală Dar dincolo de sistemul nostru solar Ar putea exista viața în toată complexitatea ei pe o planetă printre stele  Dă-te departe ceea ce ar câștiga dezvoltarea gândirii umane dacă nu ai fi putut vedea stelele așa Aceasta este o zonă care inspiră vise Atâta timp cât am avut ochii să vedem și mințile să ne mirăm că am minunat la lumina puternică a cerului Dar numai în ajunul secolului XXI, o mână de gânditori excentrici A îndrăznit să privească în întunericul dintre stele Crezând planete ca și lumea noastră ar putea fi găsite acolo Michelle Maya a fost una dintre ele Se spune că totul este foarte ciudat în prima jumătate a secolului XX comunitatea astronomică Astronomii erau convinși că în galaxie existau puține sau nu sisteme planetare în afară de sistemul solar Când ați mers la întâlniri sau conferințe de astronomie, nu ați putea spune oamenilor pe care lucrați Dacă ai spus că cauți planete extrasolare S-au zbătut și s-ar îndepărta ca și cum ai mirosit rău sau că ai încercat să vinzi niște religii New Age Știi că ai căutat puțin bărbați verzi în acel moment În anii '90 astronomul Paul Butler a fost un alt tânăr radical care și-a jucat cariera în vânătoarea de exoplanetă planete orbitează alte stele decât Soarele nostru I Lucraam la problema ca 80 sau 100 de ore pe saptamana Atât de intens încât aș avea vise Despre lucrare și știi, este total consumator În centrul provocării a fost o problemă fundamentală chiar dacă ar exista exoplanetă acolo Oamenii de știință știau că ar fi imposibil să vadă direct, pentru că strălucirea stelei ar copleși planeta Planeta este foarte mică și slabă în ceea ce privește luminozitatea față de stea Prin urmare, obținerea unei imagini directe a unei planete. Ei bine, asta e marea dificultate Una este uimită de Stele Pentru a depăși acest obstacol, astronomii au dezvoltat o metodă ingenios de a vâna exoplanetă prin stealth Pentru a detecta planeta care orbitează o stea, trebuie să vă bazați pe trucuri și unul dintre trucurile pe care le-am folosit este Dacă există o planetă în jurul stelei, steaua se va mișca puțin Miscarea mișcată și aceasta este mișcarea pe care doriți să o detectați În 1994 Hunterul de planetă junior din Didier Queloz a fost michelle Doamna doctorului Maya, pe marginea unei descoperiri descoperite În 94, am început acest program care privea aproximativ o sută de stele cu un echipament nou Am petrecut aproape patru ani înainte de ao construi și a proiecta software-ul pentru a trata datele servim cu telescopul pentru a obține viteza stelei și Încercarea de a vedea schimbările minore ale vitezei cu timpul Un fel de rătăcire. Aș spune că este ceva ce orbitează acea stea Creste ziua sub Montaigne intr-un fel singur, pentru ca Michelle ar fi in sabbatical Practic mi-a dat cheia casei pentru că nu se aștepta la detectare Îmi poți imagina surpriza mea după doar câteva observații pe care le vedem că ceva a fost cam ciudat în acel stil Mi-a trebuit practic șase luni pentru a fi convins că sunt real și apoi trimit mesajul lui Michel Am fost într-o sârmă, îl văd pe Michel. Cred că am găsit o planetă Poate că nu arăta așa, dar această mică curbă este o planetă Cum mi-am detectat cola, este o poveste de creativitate științifică remarcabilă Subiecte noi suntem aici în Dome a teribilului pierdut observat Aici a început descoperirea exoplanetăților Deci, decodifică planetele corpurile noastre care nu emite lumină de la sine ele reflectă doar lumina primită de la steaua lor și așa va trebui să găsim un Metoda indirectă pentru detectarea planetei. Am făcut un efect de identificare a unei planete detectate Pentru a înțelege ideea simplă din spatele acestei situații Imaginați-vă că sunteți în rândul din spate al stadionului de la Jocurile Olimpice de a urmări un sportiv extrem de musculos, cu brațele întinse Yaya Imaginați-vă că ciocanul este planeta atletul care coboară peste lanțul dintre ele legătura lor gravitațională Steaua trage din greu pe planetă, dar nu este o singură cale Planeta, de asemenea, trage de stele, de fapt a fost fiecare revoluție este tragerea ei un pic de pe echilibru Folosind un instrument asemănător prismei numit spectrograf, acest efect de mișcare poate fi detectat prin observare modificări ale culorii luminii emise de stea Trecerea spre albastru, pe măsură ce steaua se mișcă mai aproape și mai roșu pe măsură ce se îndepărtează Măsurarea acestei oscilații a permis koalas și meu sau să deduc existența unei planete pentru a calcula masa ei distanța de la stele și durata orbitei sale Se mișcă să fie aici cu aceste instrumente care ne-au permis mai mult de 20 de ani în urmă să descoperim prima exoplanetă Cred că prin detectarea primei planete pe care ai rupe o frontieră psihologică în Știința e foarte rară. Nu puteți schimba o paradigmă și am schimbat paradigma Pe data de 6 octombrie 1995, mele sau și koalas au anunțat descoperirea lor Prima exoplanetă vreodată Bellerophon Deși nu au putut să o vadă direct. Este sugerată masa. Era o planetă uriașă de gaze asemănătoare cu cea a lui Jupiter  Dar distanța de la steaua sa și perioada orbitei sale părea să sfideze legile sistemului nostru solar Oamenii s-au gândit bine, acest lucru este cu adevărat bizar. Aceasta trebuie să fie o ciudățenie totală pentru că nu arăta ca sistemul solar Este o planetă mare ca Jupiter, dar orbitează o stea în patru zile Delfy teoria a fost formarea de planete uriașe prezise că acestea ar orbita stele lor peste perioade extrem de lungi de timp Este de zece ani sau mai mult și deci pare complet în contradicție cu teoria timpului În propriul sistem solar, planetele de gaze uriașe există numai în orbitele exterioare mai reci, în timp ce Bellerophon părea că este înțepenit de căldura stelei sale Mult mai aproape, decât mercurul este pentru Soarele nostru Pentru că este atât de aproape de stea, este foarte greu este probabil ceva de genul un cuvânt sau 2000 de grade Celsius și nu există o suprafață solidă deoarece este un gigant de gaze, deci nu este sau Nu este un loc bun pentru viață Nu este un loc pe care vrei să-l vizitezi Bellerophon nu era un al doilea pământ Dar descoperirea lui a deschis fereastra pe o nouă viziune a universului, unde este posibilă orice Exoplaneta Miniver B a fost aleasă ca țintă a misiunii mele De astronomi care au murit de mult Au murit crezând că au găsit patru 14,7 ani lumină de la Pământ, o lume ca a noastră cu viață de apă lichidă Sper că le voi dovedi, bine Când primele exoplante au fost descoperite prin metoda de învârtire A fost o dezbatere în comunitatea astronomică, unii astronomi au spus că este fantastic o lume nouă Complet neprevăzut în ceea ce privește înțelegerea formării planetei Dar un alt grup de astronomi au spus să se țină o clipă Nu credem că acestea sunt planete În 1999 profesor de astronomie David Charbonneau a fost doar un student tânăr de grad la Harvard încercând să-și facă marca în noul domeniu de vânătoare de plante Ceea ce a întâlnit a fost un câmp minat În timp ce artiștii s-au grăbit să aducă la viață aceste lumi noi scepticii au pus la îndoială interpretarea datelor astronomilor Ceea ce au spus au fost că am fost păcăliți că există, de fapt, un nou fel de pulsație stelară și ca și steaua extins și contractat ne uitam la o parte a acelei stele și așa părea că steaua venea spre noi și departe de noi Semnal foarte semnal care ar fi mișcarea predictivă din cauza unei planete care orbitează, dar de fapt nu avea nimic de a face cu planeta deloc Ceea ce am decis să fac este să încerc să merg și să rezolv această dezbatere În primul rând, căutând lumina reflectată într-una din aceste lumi Am încercat foarte greu pentru câțiva ani și, din nefericire, nu am reușit Dar apoi, ca oa doua idee, ceea ce am hotărât să facem este să nu căutăm lumina care să se învârtă de pe o planetă Așteptați ca planeta să treacă în fața stelei sale și să căutați tranzitul Charbonneau sa mutat la Boulder, Colorado Într-un mic magazin într-un parc auto unde un telescop de bază de patru inci a fost înființat de colegul său cercetător, Tim Brown Dar nu am mai făcut niciodată un astfel de proiect, ca o primă încercare Am crezut că ar trebui să ne uităm la o stea în care am știut că există o planetă datorită metodei de învârtire Dar pe care nu l-am căutat încă pentru a vedea dacă, de fapt, planeta a trecut în fața unei stele care a făcut un tranzit Acolo unde metoda de învârtire permitea să se deducă masa unei exoplanetă orbitatoare Charbonneau încearcă să observe forma planetelor pe măsură ce trece prin stele în felul unei eclipse parțiale Problema a fost că știa că șansele au fost stivuite împotriva lui Dintre toate planetele care se află acolo orbitează stelele lor Vom vedea doar o fracțiune mică Prin această metodă de tranzit ideea este că linia noastră de vedere trebuie să fie exact aliniată cu o orbită planetară De fiecare dată când planeta se învârte în jurul ei, va trece în fața unei părți a stelei Blocând o parte din lumină și asta e semnalul pe care îl putem detecta A replicat că un alt așa-zis Bellerophon ca Jupiter firesc a fost detectat de metoda de învârtire Charbonneau și-a pregătit telescopul pe steaua HD 2 0 9 4 5 8 și a așteptat să se roage pentru un tranzit În acel moment au fost descoperite aproximativ 10 Jupitere fierbinți Deci, părea că există planete dacă nu am fi fost păcăliți și mai devreme sau mai târziu sau ar trebui să se întâmple unul dintre aceste tranzituri Și chiar când am prezis pe baza datelor Wobble că ar avea loc un tranzit, atunci am văzut acest eveniment Shabba știe că metoda de tranzit a fost un schimbător de joc confirmând descoperirile de pionierat folosind metoda amânând pe sceptici Descoperirea tranzitului turneului HD nouă, patru, cinci, opt a fost o mare afacere în comunitatea astronomică Pentru prima dată am știut masa reală a planetei pe care o știam dimensiunea ei și am putea calcula densitatea Și  Am putea compara aceasta cu densitatea planetelor din sistemul solar. Deci a confirmat că aceste lumi erau cu adevărat fierbinți Acestea erau planete mari de gaze umflate datorită apropierii lor de stelele lor Universul cu noul aspect a fost populat, inspirând rapid o generație de oameni de știință tineri care se alătură vânătorii Timpul este totul Când eram la școală Mijlocul anilor 1990 în căutarea unui proiect pentru a lucra la teza mea de doctorat destul de uimitor, primele rapoarte ale planetelor care orbitează stele asemănătoare soarelui se apropiau în acel timp și pe mine tezaurul a sugerat că lucrez la exoplanetă MIT profesor de astrofizică Sara Seager a ajuns pe teren după ce paradigma sa schimbat deja Pentru ea, întrebarea nu mai era doar că există exoplanetă acolo? Ar putea fi unul ca Pământul?  când vreau să cred că vin aici la marele lac și te uiți pe apă și mă gândesc cum Ce viață minunată este viața fragilă? Îmi dă speranță că există o altă planetă acolo unde viața ar putea să prospere Dar ceea ce face lumea noastră atât de specială ce caracteristici fizice definesc planeta noastră Căutăm o planetă care are o suprafață solidă, predominant planetă stâncoasă, dar nu ne așteptăm ca o altă planetă să fie exact ca și pe planetă Când vorbim despre planetele pe care vrem să le găsim, este vorba de o viață care să poată găzdui viața Chiar și în mediile cele mai extreme ca în mijlocul ghețarilor vulcanilor din Islanda Condițiile care fac posibilă viața organică pe pământ pot fi găsite dacă știți unde să căutați Viața are nevoie de apă și credem că apa este aproape peste tot în univers Totuși, o găsim în principal pe formule și nu este ceea ce avem nevoie de viață așa cum o știm și cum o vom recunoaște Într-adevăr are nevoie de apă lichidă și acest lucru nu este evident deoarece necesită condițiile corecte de temperatură și presiune Bazat pe tot ce știm despre viața de pe Pământ oameni de știință ca Francois fouché, cred că pentru un Exoplanetă să găzduiască apă lichidă ca Pământul Trebuie să se afle într-o anumită distanță de steaua pe care o numește regiunea numită zonă locuită Ei detin Calculăm că, dacă mutăm pământul cu doar câteva procente mai aproape de Soare, clima ar intra în forță Pentru că ar exista mai multă energie solară Oceanele ar fi mai calde mai mult vapori de apă mai mult efect de seră și foarte repede oceanele ar fi fierte și se vor evapora în totalitate Pe de altă parte, dacă mutăm pământul la câteva procente de semnal, va fi mai rece Ar mai fi zăpadă mai multă gheață, iar zăpada va reflecta lumina soarelui care o face mai rece și mai rece și asta Continuă până când tot pământul este acoperit de gheață. Noi îi numim un pământ de bulgăre de zăpadă Motivul pentru care pământul este potrivit pentru viață nu este numai că este acoperit cu apă lichidă și oceane astăzi Dar a existat de-a lungul existenței sale, timp de 4 miliarde de ani, care a permis nașterea și evoluția vieții Primul model matematic al habitatelor planetare produs în 1979 a plasat limite extrem de înguste în zona locuibilă Dar progresele recente în domeniul științei geologice s-au extins la orizont În afară de a fi la o distanță aproximativă față de Soare, principalul lucru care ține tabelul Taba este ciclul de carbon Penn profesor de stat al Geoscience Jim caste este un lider mondial în studiul habitatelor planetare și al rolului vital jucat de Carlin Pe pământ carbon în formă de CO 2 Trage căldura soarelui în atmosfera noastră, fără ca temperaturile să scadă sub ceea ce trebuie să supraviețuiască Dar co2 nu rămâne doar în atmosferă Copacii din jurul nostru sunt fotosinteza și sunt XE Schimbând fiecare moleculă de co2 din atmosferă la fiecare 10 sau 12 ani dar pe perioade lungi de timp este ceea ce numim ciclul de carbonat de silicat în care se schimbă co2 în sistemul ocean cu atmosferă combinată carbonate Coada bogată în dioxid de siliciu se spală în ocean și este aspirată în crusta Pământului la liniile subacvatice Unde este finala? mecanism geologic completează ciclul Pentru a avea o planetă locuibilă ca pământul, aveți cu adevărat nevoie Un ciclu de carbon pe termen lung și care trebuie să fie condus de Unele procese precum tectonica plăcii pe pământ care mențin carbonul în mișcare Când această planetă intră într-o epocă de gheață, acest feedback tectonic restabilește un climat locuibil oceanul îngheață partea de preluare a ciclului de carbon încetinește în timp ce activitatea vulcanică continuă pompând co2 și încălzind-o înapoi în atmosferă Când puneți feedback, aflați că zona locuibilă, în loc să fie foarte îngustă, este de fapt destul de largă suficient de larg încât să existe o șansă bună Planeta din jurul altor stele, cel puțin una sau una sau mai multe dintre ele ar putea fi în zona locuibilă Cercetarea costurilor a avut un impact semnificativ Prin extinderea limitelor zonei locuibile, bucla de feedback de carbon a îmbunătățit foarte mult șansele de a găsi o exoplanetă asemănătoare pământului În cazul în care viața ar putea fi posibilă? Dar provocarea fundamentală de a identifica o planetă asemănătoare pământului rămâne Există mici și, prin urmare, mult mai greu de detectat în comparație cu giganții de gaze pe care instrumentele noastre le-au observat până acum  Pentru a vedea aceste lumi de dimensiuni pământești, a fost necesar un salt uriaș în tehnologie eu Era student absolvent când a fost descoperită prima planetă De fapt, am fost la conferința în care primarul Michelle a făcut acest anunț NASA astrofizician, Natalie batalha a absolvit cu un vis Aș spune cel mai mare. Speranța a fost că găsim o planetă de dimensiuni pământești care orbitează o stea foarte asemănătoare cu propriul nostru Soare Într-o orbită similară în care condițiile pentru viață ar putea fi doar corecte Cinci patru trei Două Motorul pornește cu un zero și se ridică două rachete Delta cu Kepler În căutarea planetelor într-un fel ca al nostru În 2009, oamenii de știință au lansat o nouă armă formidabilă în căutarea vieții dincolo de sistemul nostru solar Primul telescop dedicat telescopului Kepler În acel moment era cea mai mare cameră digitală din lume folosind o serie de 95 de caractere senzori megapixeli pentru a detecta modul de diminuare al modului Tessa al luminii stelelor străpuns de planetele de tranzit Atât de puternic încât, dacă ar fi întors spre pământ, ar putea detecta o singură lumină de portic care să se oprească Mai important. A fost primul instrument capabil să detecteze planete de dimensiuni mari ale pământului Primele două decenii de exoplanetă au fost cam cum ar fi colectarea de timbre poștale, Kepler a schimbat cu adevărat acest lucru Kepler a monitorizat o regiune selectată a galaxiei noastre pe o perioadă de patru ani Luând un instantaneu la fiecare 30 de minute, ca o fotografie epică temporală Din aceste date, am identificat peste 4.000 de persoane evenimente de tranzit periodice care arata ca planete viabile  Și, de fapt, am confirmat prin alte observații ulterioare că peste jumătate dintre ele sunt într-adevăr planeta bonafide Kepler a livrat nu numai primul stâncos exoplanetă, a dezvăluit noi tipuri de planete stâncoase cum ar fi Kepler 10b Prima noastră întâlnire cu ceea ce oamenii de știință vor boteza lumea lavă Acestea sunt lumi stâncoase la fel de densitate ca și Pământul, dar în orbitează atât de aproape de vedetă Că temperaturile de suprafață sunt în exces față de cele necesare pentru a topi nu numai roca, ci fierul Deci, aveți o emisferă întreagă, știți ceva mai mare decât Oceanul Pacific, care este un ocean Dar nu este un ocean de apă. Este un ocean de rocă topită Kepler a fost primul recensământ celestial Extrapolând datele pentru regiunea studiată, astronomii au dat un catalog al populației exoplanetă Am învățat să cred că trei lucruri importante Mai întâi am aflat că fiecare stea pe care o vedeți când privești în cer în timpul nopții are cel puțin o planetă Celălalt lucru pe care l-am învățat este că natura face planete mici mai eficient decât planetele mari Al treilea lucru pe care l-am învățat Are de-a face cu fracțiunea de stele care marchează portul Pământului potențial planete locuibile și putem face corecțiile părtinitoare pentru a determina acel număr și ceea ce vedem este că este vorba despre 22-25% Cel puțin o planetă pentru fiecare stea de pe cer Și un sfert dintre aceștia sunt de dimensiuni pământești și orbitează în zona locuită Kepler a revoluționat modul în care vedem stelele Kepler era pionierul Kepler căutând planete care trec prin stele și ca soarele Kepler sa uitat la un câmp foarte îndepărtat de patru ani pentru a încerca să găsească o planetă ca Pământul care are un an orbită Inspirat de succesul lui Kepler 2013 NASA și-a unit forțele cu MIT Lincoln laboratoare pentru a dezvolta un instrument care ar putea oferi un sondaj mai detaliat din apropiere lumi asemănătoare pământului Întregul câmp al exoplanetălor se îndreaptă spre căutarea unui alt pământ, o lume stâncoasă O orbita cu un star mic, preferabil intr-o zona locuibila a acelei stele Pe măsură ce proiectul a avansat profesorul MIT Sara Seager a fost numit deputat director științific al tranzitului satelitul sondajului exoplanetă Aka Tess Tess vrea să găsească stele care sunt mai aproape chiar în cartierul nostru aparatul foto are Ansamblul lentilelor a șapte elemente de lentile care au fost lumina stelelor Într-un detector, împreună, fac o bandă gigantică Când te gândești la cer ca o sferă de la fundul unei emisfere până la pol? după un an de la efectuarea acelor teste se va reveni la următoarea SEM și Apoi va face același lucru. Și așa mai mult de doi ani de încercare. Scopul este de a studia întregul cer Prin scanarea sistemelor de stele din apropiere, Tess dorește să identifice 50 de exoplanetă de dimensiuni pământești candidații pentru investigații ulterioare Dar găsirea unei planete ca pământul nostru ar însemna și să găsim o stea ca Soarele nostru Tot ce știm despre vedetele pe care le cunoaștem din tot ceea ce știm despre Minerva B este asta Este o planetă stâncoasă De 1,6 ori mai mare decât Pământul găzduit de o stea roșie pitic Perioada orbitală este de 39 de zile Se află în zona locuibilă E atmosfera conține dioxid de carbon metan apă și ozon Va fi plin de surprize După explozia descoperirilor a apărut o nouă întrebare Poate că găsirea stelei potrivite este la fel de importantă ca găsirea planetă potrivită Cred că cea mai mare minciună pe care mi sa spus-o când eram la școală era că Soarele este o stea medie? Soarele nu este o stea medie, soarele este mult mai mare mult mai luminos mult mai masiv decât cele mai multe stele Cele mai multe stele din galaxie sunt de aproximativ un sfert de dimensiunea înregistrării Soarelui din masă și au scos doar unul o mie de energie Acestea sunt mici stele răcoroase care nu ard galbene ca Soarele nostru, dar roșu Sunt clasificați ca stele de tip m sau M, dar majoritatea oamenilor le numesc pitici roșii Una dintre descoperirile lui Kepler de dimensiuni pământești, planeta kepler 186f Sa descoperit că orbitează o astfel de stea 500 de ani-lumină de la Pământ E vorba de aceeași dimensiune a pământului și de observațiile noastre Spuneți-ne că planetele cu mărimea Pământului sunt mai predispuse la o compoziție stâncoasă Așa că ne imaginăm că această planetă este o planetă stâncoasă cu o suprafață solidă Se primește cu privire la cantitatea potrivită de energie pentru ca apa lichidă să tragă pe suprafață Dar orbitează o stea care este foarte diferită de Soarele nostru Deoarece piticii rosii ard mai putin calzi decat Soarele nostru, zona locuibila tinde sa fie mult mai aproape Dar această apropiere ar putea crea un dezastru pentru viața de pe planetă Roșu pitice zonele lor locuibile sunt atât de aproape, că planetele au o șansă mare de a deveni blocat tidally și Rotirea sincronă în cazul în care acestea arată aceeași față a stelei tot timpul, la fel ca luna arată aceeași față de pământ Deci, acest lucru ridică probleme legate de habitate, care poate fi dificil de depășit Atunci când o planetă este aproape de stea, forța gravitațională sau maree devine mai mare Și aceasta poate avea efectul de a bloca rotația planetei În sensul că o parte este întotdeauna aprinsă de către steaua ei, în timp ce cealaltă rămâne învăluită în întuneric Pe lângă faptul că produce o parte caldă și una rece Prin rotirea atât de încet, planeta ar putea să nu reușească să genereze un scut electromagnetic care să fie pe pământ protejează planeta de radiații Aceste stele, în același timp, știți, sunt furnizate că sunt mult mai diminec decât Soarele, dar sunt mai magnetice active Ei dau o mulțime de pe o mulțime de radiații de înaltă energie care ar putea elibera atmosfera de pe o planetă, mai ales dacă nu este protejat de un câmp magnetic  Dar în 2015 casting și alți cercetători au găsit motive să sperăm pentru viață pe o planetă blocată în mod tidal orbitând un pitic roșu Folosind sofisticate modelarea climei au propus că, dacă planeta ar avea tipul potrivit Atmosfera apoi căldura ar putea fi transferată de la partea luminoasă spre întuneric ca un sistem de aer condiționat de ciclu invers Vânătorii de plante îmbrățișează descoperirea dacă viața ar putea prospera pe o planetă în jurul unui pitic roșu sau Tipul de tip "M" prezintă șansele de a găsi un al doilea pământ mult îmbunătățit Stelele de tip M sunt cea mai numeroasă stea din galaxie? 70% dintre stelele din galaxia noastră sunt acele stele de tip m? Astfel, dacă Viața se poate însămânța și începe pe aceste planete, atunci viața va fi omniprezentă în galaxie Timp de patru luni la începutul anului 2016 Telescopul SIA din Chile și-a pus ochii pe steaua de tip "m" Proxima Centuri Ahmir 4,25 ani-lumină de la Pământ, este vecinul nostru cel mai apropiat Într-o sală de mașină adânc sub o lumină telescopică, lumina stelei a fost împărțită de către spectatorul de arme al harfei Și Instrumente, atît de sensibile, încât au adus cele mai slabe vînturi din steaua pitice cauzate de un mic pămînt planetă próxima be Descoperirea a venit ca o revelație Cea mai apropiată vedetă străină de pe pământ prezintă o lume asemănătoare pământului, asemănătoare pământului, și Calculele arată că Proxima B se află în orbită în zona locuită Este uimitor triumf pentru a descoperi o planetă în jurul celei mai apropiate stele Gândește-te la asta pentru mii de trăsături. Oamenii s-au întrebat dacă există planete în jurul altor stele? Și este una în jurul nostru cea mai apropiată stea Dar despre atmosfera ei Ar putea această planetă să susțină viața? Ultima mea vânzare de propulsor heliu-3 este livrată de la baza lunii Pregătirile mele sunt complete Pe pământ lumea Uniunea astronomică îmi aruncă o petrecere în ajunul lansării mele istorice Și sunt onorat și sunt singur Mâine am plecat la Nova La fel de aurul din exoplanetă a adunat ritmul Planificatorii de vânătoare au căutat metode mai rafinate de a-și certa descoperirile într-un efort de a da un viitor  Misiunea interstelară este cea mai bună șansă posibilă de a viza o lume care ar putea gazdui de fapt viața După ce a identificat o nouă venă bogată de planete îndepărtate, următoarea piesă crucială a puzzle-ului nu a intrat încă în vigoare Cum ar putea fi folosit un telescop pentru a preleva atmosfera? Privind la atmosfera unei planete, este cel mai bun mod de a găsi semne de viață pe o altă lume deoarece gazele pe care le produce viața de aici pe pământ impresionează de fapt în atmosfera noastră într-un mod foarte important și Deci este uimitor să ne gândim că într-o altă lume putem face la fel Dacă erai un astronom străin Studiind planetele sistemului solar, veți vedea că există ceva foarte diferit față de a treia planetă de la Soare Ați vedea că atmosfera sa este plină de oxigen, chiar dacă ați ști că oxigenul nu ar putea fi acolo prin procese geologice Ar fi alte gaze ca metanul Care, de asemenea, nu ar trebui să fie prezente și totuși acolo sunt și ați crede că noi încercăm să facem Când ne uităm la alte stele ajungem la concluzia că viața a fost singura explicație posibilă În 2000, ascuțitorul David a preluat controlul telescopului Hubble, care era în vârstă Încărcat cu un obiectiv unic, dar descurajant, pentru a face primul-vreodată observarea unei atmosfere de exoplanetă Metoda de tranzit a detecției exoplanetă, pe care Charbonneau o pusese pionier Oferă un indiciu pentru modul de rezolvare a puzzle-ului Planeta orbitează îndeaproape cu stelele lor Faceți mai multe tranzitări frecvente și cu cât este mai mare planeta, cu atât este mai ușor să detectați așa că Charbonneau a îndreptat privirea lui Hubble către acei Syrus un gigant de gaze care tranzitează fiecare 3,5 zile Am avut ideea că atunci când planeta a trecut în fața stelei, o parte din lumina stelei ar trece părțile exterioare ale planetei și apoi imprimate pe acea lumină ar fi Amprentele de orice atom sau molecule au fost prezente în atmosferă Diferiți atomi absoarbe frecvențe luminoase diferite în spectrul electromagnetic și permit altora să treacă prin producând o semnătură în culoare Nimeni nu a descoperit niciodată o atmosferă exoplanetă și Așadar, aveam nevoie de o presupunere despre ce atom sau moleculă ar fi Foarte proeminent ar fi primul lucru mai ușor de văzut, astfel încât au existat câteva predicții Charbonneau și-a pus banii pe sodiu în lumina galbenă a lămpilor stradale Observațiile au fost adunate la câteva luni după aceea și a durat mai mult de un an pentru a analiza cu atenție datele Nu, cineva a făcut vreodată această detectare înainte, așa că am vrut să fim absolut siguri că ceea ce vedem era robust După ce a cercetat minuțios datele, Charbonneau și-a anunțat descoperirea Atmosfera din jurul lui Osiris era într-adevăr bogată în sodiu Totuși, acesta nu era un al doilea pământ Numit după zeul egiptean al morților Gigantul gazos Osiris nu are nici măcar o suprafață solidă care să aterizeze, să nu mai vorbim de climatul vieții Ceea ce dorim să facem este să studiem atmosfera unei planete asemănătoare pământului Desigur, planetele asemănătoare pământului sunt pur și simplu mult mai mici decât giganții de gaze. Și astfel este mult mai dificil să le detectăm și pentru a studia atmosfera lor Este obstacolul care a creat vânătorii de plante încă de la început orbirea luminoasă a Stelelor copleșește complet pe cei mai mici exoplanete Primul instrument pentru a rezolva această problemă va ține cheia pentru exoplanetă revoluţie Acest telescop ne va permite să facem un salt înainte în mai multe domenii de astrofizică Mai ales în domeniul exoplanetălor. Ne va permite să observăm atmosfera acestor exoplanetă Telescopul spațial James Webb este conceput pentru a vedea cerurile, așa cum nu au mai fost văzute până acum făcând invizibilul vizibil Vasele sale de tip fagure, cum ar fi farfuria oglinzilor, converg lumina în ochiul unei tehnologii de ultimă oră aparat de fotografiat infraroșu care astrofizicianul Pierre Olivier lagash a petrecut 20 de ani în curs de dezvoltare Și un obiect emit lumină într-o anumită lungime de undă, în funcție de temperatura ei De exemplu, Soarele emite în intervalul vizibil, deoarece este foarte fierbinte Dacă luăm un om, este mult mai rece și va emite într-o lungime de undă diferită mijlocul infraroșu De aceea, cu așa-numita cameră termică sau infraroșu. Puteți vedea oameni noaptea Nu avem nevoie de lumini. Vedem căldura emisă de un om în mijlocul infraroșiei Același lucru este valabil și pentru exoplanetă, observându-le în lungimea de undă potrivită și strălucesc în întuneric Dar pentru ca viziunea în infraroșu să funcționeze, ea se bazează pe caracteristica cu adevărat inovatoare a acestui telescop În interiorul camerei se află arma secretă a lui James Webb, un fel de mască numită coronagraph A fost că această formă de măști este foarte unică, lumina stelei ajunge acolo unde este opacă Pe de altă parte, dacă aveți un obiect mic lângă el ca o exoplanetă Ei bine, lumina nu va avea exact aceeași cale și va străluci prin ea După asta, vom avea lumina exoplanetă fără lumina stelei Deci, datorită acestei metode grafice corona. Vom putea obține o imagine directă a exoplanetăților Masca coronografului intervine între lumina copleșitoare a stelei ca o eclipsă Permite lumina infraroșu a planetei să strălucească Aceste Exoplanetele nu au fost niciodată văzute la această lungime de undă și totuși este un câmp foarte interesant pentru măsurarea temperaturii acestora obiecteaza luminozitatea lor Putem vedea și compoziția Anumite molecule, cum ar fi amoniacul care se află în această gamă de lungimi de undă asa ca Caracterizarea atmosferelor va fi unul dintre marile focalizări ale acestui instrument Crucial in the hunt for earth-like worlds James Webb is ideally suited for detecting ozone But why ozone because there's no ozone without oxygen and no oxygen without life so we think it's really something that is a trace of life and in the middle infrared our telescopes can precisely detectors this signature of ozone The James Webb promises to be the missing piece in the planet hunters arsenal With its breakthrough ability to view an earthlike exoplanet directly and to study its atmosphere the odds of Identifying a destination for a future landing mission have never been better You know I can probably imagine what that would feel like better than most people can I've been sending robotic missions to other planets My whole career 40 years of this but I can't imagine what it would feel like. I mean the the the problem of Getting a spacecraft with that kind of capability to another star is so much harder The discoveries of the planet hunters Transformed the way we see the universe and posed to explorers like Steve Squyres lead investigator of the Mars rover missions the next tantalizing question What if we could reach out to a nearby alien star and search for life on a second earth What if we could land on another rocky world with running water and a protective earth-like atmosphere If you can find an earth-like world that has been around for billions of years Enough time to develop advanced biology. It's had the right conditions all that time. There are all kinds of possibilities eu Can't imagine what it wouldn't feel like it's gonna be I mean, it's gonna be a shared moment for all of humanity when it happens Five four three two One I launch No fireworks, no trembling For those of you who are watching this, I thank you for entrusting me with the greatest adventure in human history Wish me luck My mission is simple find life It was only for graduate students and I was in the undergraduate and I nearly got thrown out of the class the first day și got to be I Don't know three or four weeks into the semester I think I better start thinking about my term paper and there was this place Then at the time called the Mars room and it was a place where the pictures from Mars were stored And I went in and I thought I'll sit down for 15 or 20 minutes and flip through some pictures and see if I can Come up with an idea for a term paper Like most scientists Principal investigator of the Mars rover missions. Steve Squyres is a born Explorer a seeker of truth Amidst the great unknown, I mean ever since I was a kid, I've been fascinated by maps. eu Was fascinated by a you know remote corners of Tibet or the deep ocean Or the other side of the Moon Just the idea that there was a place that we hadn't seen yet and then me able to go there and see it for the first time that just That just had a huge appeal for me In 1977 images of the Viking mission changed the course of Squires life You know, it's not like today where pictures come down from Mars and bang. They're on the internet an hour. Later There were only a few dozen people in the world. Who'd seen these I didn't understand what I was looking at in the pictures nobody did but then I would see and the pictures these little Valleys that just looked like they had to obtain carved by liquid water And I was in that room for four hours and I walked out of there knowing exactly What I wanted to do with the rest of my life Point I'm beyond Ram In the early 2000s Squires led NASA's Spirit and Opportunity rover missions to Mars Successfully landing the two robot geologists in a bid to uncover the hidden history of water on the Red Planet Amid these groundbreaking triumphs an even greater frontier beckons The discovery of earth-like worlds outside our solar system has transformed the way we see the universe și presents an irresistible challenge Why not reach out even further and search for life on the planet among the stars? The thing that has driven the focus of exploration in this solar system has been the search for other forms of life and So I think the motivation is gonna be the same thing I think the motivation when you go to other star systems is going to be habitable worlds and Possibly worlds with life. That's the thing that's going to Draw you to a specific world But the scaleless challenge is unlike anything humankind has attempted before The closest star that hosts an earth-sized planet Proxima Centauri is 4.3 light years away peste 170,000 times further than Mars The quest to build a spacecraft that can journey to the Stars will test the greatest explorers of our generation and demand of them the ultimate sacrifice to Give all their craft and vision for a dream. They'll never realize You're asking people to Devote their careers their lives to something they will never see to fruition. Now that has happened That has happened a few times in human history Some of the great cathedrals of Europe took longer than a human lifespan to build People felt guided by a higher power when they did that But it takes something extraordinary to motivate people to do that kind of thing I enter the shadow of Mars  So Viking colony winking a final farewell from human time My transceiver dish receives the message moon voyage I fly by the storm of Jupiter Onward to Pluto and Chiron and into the space between stars After three months of acceleration, my speed is 12 miles per second I meet Voyager 1 170 years and 45 billion miles from Earth You to shift course No power to call home eu Have now traveled further than any spacecraft performing I Retract my transceiver There will be no more calls And press arms through the silence to me never eu Get up each day With joy, you know, why because I know that day. I'm going to learn something I didn't know before and that my picture my overall tapestry of who we are who I am what our species is and how we got to be that way will be  lifted up NASA's chief engineer of planetary flight systems Gentry Lee is a pioneer of exploration At the age of 75 he's dedicated over 50 years of his life to engineering robotic missions to other planets Someone asked me one time if I had to describe the excursions above the threshold of joy in my life Would there be a lot of them are just a few and I said I can give you the two categories right away the birth of my children and I now have eight and With a spacecraft that I had a major role in achieved something successfully. There's also been eight of those Lee's first mission Viking in 1975 Was humanity's opening shot in our dream of exploring the solar system Designed to achieve what many thought impossible To make the first ever landing on another planet Marte We had lived through five years of people trying it's not gonna work You don't have everything under control and we were scared to death that it wouldn't work And the moment that first strip of picture came down from planet Mars on July the 20th of 1976 there were hundreds of us Immediately spontaneously tears burst from our eyes It was at that moment that we knew the human beings who had always been a category one species Limited to their own earth and this sphere of influence had reached out and become a category two specie Ready to explore the entire solar system Over the next five decades Lee oversaw successful missions to Jupiter Pluto and to the comet Tempel 1 With Lee and other pioneers at the helm Humanities exploration of the solar system has been so successful. We have a permanent office in space the International Space Station But as the new dawn of interstellar exploration lights the horizon Even the old Sea Dogs. No, it will be the greatest challenge that humankind has ever faced it is hubris on our part to imagine that we can sit today and define all the steps that lead us to this plethora of Technology advances that we need in the future to build an interstellar spacecraft Rather let us do the following thing That spacecraft must communicate. It must navigate. It must have propulsion It must have the ability to take data It's as if Henry the Navigator as the king of Portugal had said I don't even know yet What kind of ships I need to build or where they need to go. Let me just start with an idea. What floats? Și So the infinitely complex quest to search for life amongst the Stars is reduced to just four problems Propulsion Navigation communication Intelligence each one of them will demand a revolution I am nine years into my journey 1.2 light-years from Earth 26% of my acceleration phase completely My speed is 8,000 miles per second My fuel usage 19% see I Jettison my spent fuel cells I am or course for rival ed Minerva in 31 years time His life await me When I was about 10 years old I had one of these department store telescopes learned how to use it Took it out one night and focused it on what I was told was the planet Saturn Și When I lined up the viewfinder and held it still and I could see Saturn and its rings At that moment. I felt a calling and that calling was to learn about how to get there T-minus 10 9 8 7 6 Liz Johnson answered that calling becoming a world leading expert in advanced concepts At NASA Marshall Space Flight Center In 1999 he led pioneering research into interstellar propulsion Nature is kind to us in the regard to what options we're going to have to get to the stars Nature has said you use smart people. You can figure this out. It's just gonna be really hard It was difficult enough to go to the moon We're sending probes to the different planets in the solar system, but to take that leap to go to the stars The distance is just so much further and requires so much more energy that it's just gonna take some time The goal of engineering missions to the Stars confronts explorers with distances they've never even contemplated before One light here is five point eight trillion miles Which makes our nearest star over 24 trillion miles away? That's more than a billion round-the-world flights According to the masters of solar system exploration The greatest challenge is how to propel a spacecraft fast enough to travel light-years within a lifetime In order to get humans to make the enormous effort required to fly that kind of mission You need to have the period of time between when you launch and when you actually get information back Be no longer than a typical human lifespan Humanity has never launched Multi-generational voyages of exploration it simply never been done The distances are just daunting and so They're gonna have the major major breakthrough closely a propulsion The chemical fuel Rockets like Saturn fire have been the workhorses of solar system exploration They got us to the moon in just three days But to reach a planet orbiting our nearest star within a generation We'd need to travel at a speed that covers the earth to moon distance in just eight seconds That's 17% the speed of light Chemical rockets are great for getting out of the gravity will You have the the high thrust overcome Earth's gravity But they're terribly inefficient and in order to get to the stars in a reasonable amount of time You're going to need to get up to some pretty high speeds And it's not just the thrust Its how efficiently you do that? Because if you're inefficient you have to have a lot more fuel and get to a point Where you can't carry enough fuel to move your own weight The capability of any propulsion system is governed by the rocket equation a trade-off between thrust efficiency and weight The most powerful chemical rocket in operation Falcon heavy First launched in 2018 weighed over three million pounds at takeoff and 95% of it was fuel It burned through all that fuel in just ten minutes In order to create enough thrust to deliver, its unusual payload beyond Earth's gravity Wherever Starman is going it is Tesla it isn't the stars Only one chemical powered spacecraft has ever made the leap beyond our solar system in 2013 36 years after its launch Voyager 1 entered interstellar space at 10.5 miles per second fast enough to travel New York to LA in under five minutes But at less than 0.0001 percent the speed of light Still painfully slow if you're aiming for the stars there well beyond what's considered to be the physical boundary of the solar system and it's taken over 30-some years to get there at that speed they'll take 70,000 years just to get to the nearest star. No chemical Rockets aren't going to do it As the push for interstellar exploration gathers pace The workhorses of the old space race are put out to pasture Monuments to a bygone era But if not chemical rockets What will deliver the seemingly impossible thrust and fuel efficiency required? To journey to the stars within a lifetime Three potential propulsion solutions are being explored today Fusion antimatter and plasma Imagine we want to go to Proxima Centauri the closest star to our solar system at 4.3 light years away and imagine we want to get there in a few decades If we use a conventional rocket, we can show that the amount of fuel we need is greater than the mass of the known universe On the other hand if we use a plasma thruster, we would only need tens or hundreds of kilograms of fuel So then the mission becomes possible Physicist Stefan Mizzou is working at the cutting edge of electric propulsion The whole plasma thruster We start with a fuel in gas form we will Electrify it And these electric particles called ions will be ejected at very very very high speed It's the ejection of his material that will advance the spacecraft Since the 1970s plasma thrusters have been used in satellites to make positioning adjustments while in orbit Their principal advantage is efficiency Demanding just a tiny fraction of the mass of fuel required by chemical rockets Take the example of Voyager 1 which is currently traveling at 60 1,000 kilometers per hour with a conventional chemical rocket engine you can reach the speed in a few days but consuming 92 tons of fuel a Plasma thruster used today on satellites would take two years to achieve the speed but consuming only a few kilograms of fuel So if you put in a lot more fuel you can use the thruster for a lot longer and ultimately achieve a speed much higher than Voyager 1 or Even reach a fraction of the speed of light Plasma engines offer. Hope of achieving the speed required to reach the Stars Still holding them back is how long it would take to achieve that speed Dragging the total trip time into thousands of years But in the shimmering upper atmosphere of our own planet Lies the potential for a kind of propulsion until now only dreamt of in the realm of science fiction I am the navigator My mind is full of stars and every planet and Every moon Every celestial body that is known I know also But the dangers my creators did not know of I must discover for myself An asteroid field I turn to face it head-on  My titanium shield absorbs the impacts But one stray penetrates my mind Emergency backup command system activates. I am reborn Gage I journeyed on In 1995 at the CERN particle collider in Switzerland for the first time in human history Scientists succeeded in producing the most efficient source of energy achievable within the laws of physics As any good Star Trek family though right on the enterprise and that's what powered their warp drive Where's warp drive a science-fiction drive, but if you if you think about antimatter it's real Just like normal matter is protons electrons there are anti protons and anti-electron When matter and antimatter come in contact with in each other they annihilate and it essentially is the perfect equal MC squared moment as released as energy and Therefore, it's the most efficient battery we can ever build the most efficient battery that nature will allow us to have  Antimatter is created naturally in space and cosmic rays collide with atoms in the Earth's atmosphere Producing it at the CERN was a phenomenal scientific and engineering breakthrough That required accelerating particles to the speed of light and smashing together The challenge now is how to create enough of it to propel a spacecraft This is where it gets tough if you look at the total amount of antimatter produced globally today, it's on the order of nano grams you would need on the order of kilograms Perhaps up to a ton of antimatter to drive a starship That's not something I want to do on the earth Because the amount of energy released if that ton of antimatter met a ton of matter Would be catastrophic and so you're going to have to build the ability to get to make your antimatter in space Far away from the earth and and use that for your starship construction. So again, it's not practical today, but it's not impossible The stars themselves suggest another possible solution to the propulsion problem The energy released from hydrogen atoms fuse together is what lights the sky across the universe Since the 1950s scientists have been developing fusion reactors to harness it The Sun does it by brute force? Has all that mass Squeezes all that hydrogen together to form helium releases energy and that's how the Sun shines It's the holy grail of energy production Tame the power of the Sun and furnish humanity with an infinite supply of energy But to get fusion going on earth. You need to generate the heat of the Sun Upwards of 180 million degrees Fahrenheit. Well, we've we've achieved fusion on the ground. It's been done Fusion happens when a hydrogen bomb is detonated which is not what we want In the hydrogen bombs of the mid 20th century The atomic explosion of a radioactive isotope was used to produce the heat required to achieve fusion But that explosion of energy was not contained in a way that it could be harnessed What you want to do is be able to capture the energy source of the Sun in Order to heat your propellant or to use as propellant to get your spacecraft going fast enough to go to the Stars Modern reactors achieve fusion by other means by heating plasma The problem with this approach so far Is that the energy required to reach that heat has been greater than the energy produced by fusion? No reactor on earth yet has even reached breakeven But at Princeton satellite systems a team of engineers is on a mission to solve that problem and To build a fusion reactor that can take us to the stars My brother will tell the story that I'm the only person he knows That's actually doing what they thought they wanted to do in high school. eu Identified aerospace engineering I think colleges for aerospace engineering I've been doing aerospace engineering ever since because it's really fun and challenging. This space is cool The exhaust velocity that we have Is only about a hundred kilometers per second when you you can't get there fast unless you got some meaningful thrust Aerospace engineer Stephanie Thomas this principal investigator in a NASA funded program to build the world's first direct fusion drive un integrated reactor and propulsion system in one They want to reach a neighboring star in the neighborhood of five light-years distance. We want to bring 10,000 kilograms of payload That's 10 metric tons. And we need to do it with an exhaust velocity that we can actually achieve with an engine Thomas's first challenge is to achieve a constant flow of plasma to catalyze the reactor We're getting pulses so a pulsing current through these antennae So every time we're running a five millisecond pulse we heat the plasma we generate current you see a flash But the reactor would be steady-state so instead of flashing like this it would be bright all the time so that's the goal Rather than using a heavy and hazardous fuel like uranium the direct fusion drive runs on a naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen Deuterium found all over the earth in water The drive unit is compact At just three feet diameter and eleven yards long is small enough to mount on a spacecraft We think that we can build the next generation machine in maybe five years It will take at least another five years to build a prototype that you could launch but definitely 15 years at the outside We think we could have one and put it in space At some point we have to visit the stars We're never gonna just sit here and be content, you know, even when we're visiting the planets because we want to know what's out there Everybody wants to go to the stars someday In the timeline of propulsion technology that someday is getting closer The next challenge in our bid for the stars is navigation I discard my primary engine 15 years out from my destination At 32,000 miles per second. My acceleration phase is now complete I deploy anterior thrusters and engage reverse propulsion I said deceleration at minus 104 miles per second squared Total ship weight now 46,000 tonnes and decreasing 170 pounds per second of propellant burns I refine my trajectory and set course for Minerva In the realm of space exploration The solar system is our neighborhood Since visiting the moon in 69 we've dropped in on almost every body around the Sun In 2015 the New Horizons probe completed the first flyby of our most distant neighbor Pluton He took over nine years to get there, but at every step of the way The unmanned spacecraft was guided remotely from Earth The way we navigate today when we send these probes out even the one that went to Pluto is we have a Combination of data taken by the flying spacecraft and our big computers here on the earth and a processing radio information that comes from a spacecraft when we went by Pluto We were basically so accurate that we were hitting a golf ball into a hole from Los Angeles to London That's how accurate that was done Sending directions to probes works for solar system exploration But as we set our sights on the Stars, the distances are so enormous a new question emerges How to navigate a journey of Light-years if we were ever to go explore a planet around another star The distance would be so great that the machine would have to essentially operate on its own we call that autonomy We're taking big steps in that direction with curiosity. We did a lot Landed on Mars in 2012 Curiosity was the first spacecraft equipped with an autonomous navigation system Given coordinates by Mission Control the rover could image its surroundings and compute a safe path across the Martian landscape But for an interstellar mission there will be no relay instructions all the navigation would have to be onboard all the algorithms the  Computations of the orbit the computations of the maneuvers to get to the right place. What stars to look at is for this year What stars to look at for next year? What we would have to do is extend our minds to imagine all the possibilities that they might run into and we would spend Literally years building this hierarchy of possibilities into this artificial intelligent machine It would have to know at all times how well Holland's critical systems were doing and how to fix them if they weren't working, right and how to replace them if they couldn't be fixed what a challenge eu Enter the Minerva star system forty nine point six years since my departure I reopened my transceiver and prepare to send the message home Have arrived With any mission Communication is paramount Most spacecraft do not return Instead they send their data back to earth When great distances in the speed of light Get involved. It becomes a very very different sort of experience simple words like now take on a kind of a different meaning I Remember when we were landing on Mars from when you hit the top of the Martian atmosphere to when you're on the surface takes about? six minutes At that time the one what we call the one-way light time how long it takes a signal to travel at the speed of light From Mars to earth was ten minutes. All systems are go we are currently committed Away from hitting the top of party Mountaineer so we're sitting there in the control room and we're watching the radio signal and we're watching the Spacecraft begins to slow down and curve down in the Martian atmosphere. It's just at the top of the atmosphere The reality is out at Mars. It's been on the surface for four minutes. eu mean of 193 miles per hour weird and it may be a happy healthy Rover or maybe a smoking hole in the ground, and I don't know But I'm watching this and I'm not seeing reality at that moment and Magnify that so instead of 10 minutes is 10 years Communication with every craft currently in space is conducted via the giant dishes of the deep space network Each powerful enough to track a signal from Pluto. They're stronger than a CB radio All of our deep space communications are run through the deep space network, that's an array of very large satellite dishes They're set up at three locations around the world One is in California at Goldstone. One is in Australia Canberra and one is in Spain at Madrid we need a Very large dish area in order to collect all the energy and be able to communicate all the way out at places like Pluto where our spacecraft are going In 2014 Mathew Abramson was mission manager of a radical new form of communication Installed on the International Space Station designed to overcome the limitation of traditional radio transmission The limitation is primarily that the distance that were sending the transmission over we send out that signal it spreads out over time and over space and so As AI spreads out. It dilutes the signal power the further out you go the lower and lower your data rate is or gets out to the level of something like your dial-up modems that we used to have many years ago When the New Horizons probes sent back pictures from Pluto via radio transmission The signal was so weak it took 15 months to downlink the images from a 12-hour flyby But with the technology Abramson launched and tested in 2014 That download time could be reduced to just one day By sending data back to earth on beams of light The idea is you take a focused laser beam and send the signal same signal over that beam But it's much more efficient because you have this focused signal that's not spreading out as much over time Laser wavelengths are packed much more densely than sound waves. Asa de They transmit more information per second and with a stronger signal The greater bandwidth allows spacecraft to downlink multiple large packets of data simultaneously and in record time The reason for that is this we go further out into the universe and we go to a place like Mars and Jupiter Currently today, we're just getting back single images of the science and in the future If you do have a high bandwidth system like an optical system You could get back high-definition video and I think getting high-definition video back would be a game-changer for space exploration I fly by the gas giants exoplanet Miniver. See I Use its atmosphere to create drag and pull me in towards my target I trace an elliptical trajectory around the Minerva son And emerge to take my first glimpse of my new hog I decoupled from my antenna My Explorer module holds my mind I commence entry landing and descent sequence Enter orbit, so close now I deploy my satellites to map the surface And scalped potential landing sites Is this new world ready to be known The part of this that is thrilling to me is that our Cel mai bun  attributes if done correctly Exploration at its finest Have been programmed into an extension of our species it belongs to no single individual it is more than anything else a symbol of Humanity working together to create something whose only purpose is to gather knowledge what a beautiful thought And after a long period of time Finally the moment of truth is coming și More than likely the people that designed it originally are no longer alive Welcome to the ops lab francesca And they have passed on this thrill this passion to their children and perhaps even to their grandchildren Okay, we're gonna walk around on Mars Francesca Will it be that they found life Will it be that they found a planet where we could someday exist? Whatever it is, it will be a historical milestone unlike any other That Moment when something new is revealed that no one's ever seen before That's just glorious. That's exploration And it's gonna happen when we go to other worlds around other stars in a very very very big way we'll be sitting back on earth and that downlink will come and The video or the pictures or the spectra or whatever it is. They're gonna come up on a screen. Everybody's jaws are just gonna drop This could be the end I really caPSURE into the unknown If I touch down If I am welcome if I find life This could be the beginning And I am ready to touchdown I Am ready to explore And ready to discover life Four and a half billion years ago in the nursery of the heavens the star was born a giant cloud of dust and gas distended and ballooned Until under the burden of its gravity it collapsed upon itself swirled into a disc and forged a solar system from the dust that Star was our son Of the planets that were formed only one that we know of gave rise to life But could our Sun our solar system our living earth Have produced the only Genesis among the stars My intuition is that the universe is full of life There's no reason fundamentally it might not look like Earth with vegetation and animals But the question I'm interested is really the start of life And on earth we see for a long time life is just microbial with all the essential features of life were there nothing new was invented when life became trees and animals it was just Morphological that's just window dressing To me it's actually not very interesting at all everything interesting with respect to biology was present when there were no trees and no animals and life was just Microscopic the DNA was there. The amino acids was there all the biochemical machinery that makes life life was there Life is a miracle and an enigma Even to those who spent their own lives trying to crack the code NASA planetary scientist Chris. McKay is one of them Part of a generation of scientists on a quest to find a second genesis beyond earth The search for life began with a lot of optimism focused on Mars Here was a planet that could have had a thick atmosphere Could have had water in the recent past and in the popular literature at least still had water so the search for life on Mars really was Fought to be easy în 1976 NASA's Viking mission made the first ever landing on the Martian surface Looking for the life that had been hoped for well Turned out a lot harder nature was guarding her secrets much more closely than we imagined So then things basically went quiet in the search for life, and I think they were sparked again. Not on Mars But in the outer solar system Three two one Liftoff of the Cassini spacecraft on a Trek to Saturn In the final decades of the 20th century humanity launched a series of ambitious missions To explore the outer solar system standing by for solid rocket boosters all systems go at this time The discovery of liquid water on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn and The misty plumes of Enceladus and the subterranean oceans of Europa and Ganymede has Opened a thrilling new chapter in the search for a second Genesis The impact of identifying a separate origin of life on one of these worlds Would extend far beyond our solar system? Finding life that's distinctly different that truly represents the second genesis of life Well, that would tell us that the answer is not one It's two in terms of life in the universe and going from one to two is huge Because on the scale of the universe the only numbers that make sense are 0 1 and infinity And what we learn in our solar system will then guide how we search for life beyond The renewed optimism in the search for life within our solar system emerged alongside a discovery that Transformed the way we see the universe In the early 2000s nasa's kepler telescope reveal that every star in the galaxy just like our Sun is orbited by at least one planet  And up to a quarter of these so-called exoplanets are believed to be suitable for life In the Milky Way alone That means roughly 400 billion solar systems and 80 billion potentially habitable worlds The odds of finding a second Genesis have never been better The way I like to think of this is that life will arise anywhere where the conditions are Right and the trick in that is what constitutes the right conditions? Planetary scientist Jonathan, Lennon is another veteran in the hunt of a life beyond Earth But what exactly is life and how does one search for it The basic essentials for life to begin and to exist are liquid water Organic molecules because carbon is really the essential Versatile element that can combine with other elements in many different ways to make the structures of life free energy and Minerals and nitrogen to provide the other elements that are required to keep the chemistry going to generate Catalysts that generate more catalysts and more structures until we get to the complexity of a primitive cell Liquid water carbon molecules energy minerals And the secret formula that animates it all into a living cell These ingredients this recipe for life Is what our scientists are hunting for or other worlds eu Deploy my spider BOTS on to the main event surface I've 3d print a fleet of drones and I let them fly With these eyes and these instruments I would taste and touch This new world for the first time Will I find all that is hopeful Exoplanets of a new frontier in the search for life beyond Earth but the prospect of exploring distant worlds presents an expanding universe of rivers to cross and mountains to climb How on earth can we prepare to explore planets we know so little about Exoplanets presents a real challenge because there's so much uncertainty So knowing whether or not you're going to find a cliff face versus a desert versus an ocean versus an ice tundra We may not know when we launched So you've got to design your system to survive and operate in all of those possible conditions At NASA's robotics headquarters in Pasadena, California Around 100 young engineers are busy reinventing the wheels of the Rovers evolved With planetary exploration we started with a large robot That was very stable very safe. And now we're beginning to take more risk. We're trying to get to new places Trying to shrink down the size of the platform do more with less It's a pretty perfect ledge over there. Yeah, sort of thing other Rovers can't fit into Some of our robots are designed to climb up different surfaces So we have a claw inspired robot that uses sharp hooks to grab on to the Rough surface kind of like an insect or a rock climber would scale up a cliff We also use electrostatics to stick to surfaces So this is like rubbing the balloon on your head and it sticks to the wall One of the key innovations in the new breed of Robotics is biomimicry using biological systems processes as the model for design To look for life behave like life We have created a material that has mechanical properties similar to that You see in biological tissues we have already with this system developed swimming robots There is a lot of work today in robots that can go between dry surfaces and water like surfaces Wherever we find water on earth we find life. So we have a strategy that we've used on Mars called follow the water I think we're going to use that same strategy when we visit an exoplanet I follow the Louvre you of a retreating glacier My hygrometers detect increasing humidity I am on the scent of fresh water Tracing its inevitable course It's branching channels over wide floodplains Consuming rock and mineral Now growing brackish perhaps estuary Fresh water and sediments meeting the insistent flow of an incoming tide There is a river ocean system or may never be An ideal breeding ground for life This is a place where there's life but stout life is we're familiar with Here life is painted living and saturated soft. It's not the kind of green things. We normally think of his life The salt palms of San Francisco Bay are naturally occurring wetland reshaped by human industry and colonized by trillions of colored micro organisms These are type of hail philic archaea, it's a particularly unusual type of microorganism  It's extrema file it requires high salt and it lives in an environment where only it can survive so it  Dominates so where it grows it grows well and and it's the king What these salty bugs have in common with everything from oak trees to humans is access to liquid water All life on Earth in some sense is fragile, it's all tied to the availability in the chemistry of water We tend to think while life on earth has expanded to all the corners of the earth and it is really it's everywhere That's because water is everywhere in this planet. This is a water planet When we look beyond the earth we realized that water is in fact rare The liquid state of water is rare and life is not the all-conquering Capability a life is only can squeeze itself into those environments where there's liquid water Waters interesting in that if we look at carbon, which is the next part of the recipe for life where water is liquid carbon can be a solid a dissolved ion or a gas all  coexisting in the same place Carbon is an unusual element in that it is capable of making Many many different kinds of molecules. There are literally millions of organic molecules now And water then becomes the milieu in which all of the chemistry of carbon that leads to us is going to take place Carbon-based organic molecules, like amino acids are the building blocks of life Combining in liquid water to form the structures of every living cell On earth today these complex molecules are everywhere but where did they come from? On earth the problem we have in the scenario of the origin of life Is that when the earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago, it had a turbulent period in its infancy With very intense meteor bombardment. It has an awesome It was an extremely hot environment which is not conducive to the emergence of complex organic molecules One of the ideas that emerged around this is could some of this organic matter have come from space In March 2004 the European Space Agency launched the Rosetta spacecraft on a hunt for the building blocks of life beyond Earth its destination was 250 million miles away and Counting the moving target hurtling through space at 37,000 miles per hour a lump of ice and dust the size of Mount Fuji the Comet 67p Rosetta's mission was to land on it and find out that it's made of From 2011 onwards Nikola Altobelli was Rosetta project scientist We think that comets when they were formed remain somewhat frozen in a state that has not changed for billions of years So the idea is maybe they've incorporated the organic material that was already present in the molecular cloud from which the solar system evolved resistance Because comets formed in the icy outer regions they hold a frozen record of the solar system's birth And as the young earth cooled and oceans formed around four billion years ago some of those same comments  Came crashing down to earth So, could it have been comments Bearing the carbon-based organic molecules from our solar system's birth that seeded life on earth It was the task of Rosetta's landing module fillet to find out The landing was a time of very strong emotions and it took place over a full day It was the 12th of November 2014 In the morning there was confirmation of the separation The first image arrived taken by the lander when it was separating from Rosetta Then there were seven hours of waiting Around 4:00 pm Came the confirmation of touchdown But the follow up signals suggested something wasn't right The first panoramic images that were taken of the surface showed an orientation of the lander which was not as it should have been And as the hours passed we realized that the anchor had failed Filet had bounced back into space Then bounced a second time before finally coming to rest several hundred meters away. eu  Remember someone saying filet dances a little Samba but we perform most of the scientific experiments that were planned One could even say because it bounced in several places it allowed us to obtain data from different areas of the comet And the orbiter perfectly fulfilled its mission The results were remarkable Fillet detected 16 organic molecules in Just a tiny sample of dust kicked up by the initial touchdown Among them some of the key building blocks of life on earth 50 percent by mass of the dust particles ejected by the comet is organic a carbon-based material This organic material came from the molecular cloud from which the solar system was formed And thus may have seated earth with all this organic material The organic molecules necessary for the emergence of life on Earth were already present in space Rosetta demonstrated that the building blocks of life on earth were created during the birth of our solar system But what about beyond Could these same vital ingredients be part of the birth of all stars? Looking back at our own earth and why we have this which you know biosphere Well, I think it all started with having all this organic material that we are made up of but that was delivered from space from comets and from asteroids So we were thinking about the likelihood of life elsewhere. We're pretty much thinking about the likelihood of having that same scenario taking place In 2015 Hi, honey, arid mountains of the Atacama Desert Professor Karen Oberg set out on a hunt for the building blocks of life In the birth cloud of an alien star system for the help of a new telescope called Alma Alma Consists of 66 individual telescopes that's all working together it operates at millimetre wavelengths and Millimeter wavelengths is where we can detect molecules tell these organic molecules that we are so interested in Obert turned Alma's gaze towards the Taurus system and found the young star MWC 480 in the throes of labor Girdled by a disc of gas and dust from which planets were being born We see this dust and gas surrounding these dis young stars and What's even more exciting we see that they often have little lanes or tracks in them where it looks like? Confirmation is going on right now After months of collecting and analyzing the data Oberg announced a discovery that bluesy odds wide open of finding a second Genesis on other worlds In the disk of this alien solar system Alma had detected some of the same organic molecules that helped give rise to life on Earth We found three kinds of cyanides three molecules and the same chemical family and Those three kinds of molecules have also been found in our own solar system in comets The same organic molecules with the same molecular Spacial to create life are out there among the stars Chemistry is awesome is the reason that we are alive and that we're here in the first place So far is only, you know one system apart from our solar system where we have this chemical information But my intuition would be that it's going to be very common. This kind of chemistry is gonna be almost universal I scan for sites or geochemical activity I find a hydrothermal field of fuel's and hot springs On earth such conditions are rich in carbon chemistry and minerals I find another mineral-rich water source upstream I identify complex molecular structure in solution I extract a sample for analysis And return it to the lander module Could this be evidence of life? Let's get the samples yet ya Can take another measurement The laws of chemistry and physics are universal so It's a given that when we go to another earth-like planet with water with the sorts of minerals that we have here in the iron core and atmosphere is Inevitable that this kind of simple chemistry would have been present Okay, it's 15 degrees up here, let's see what this little guy has for us As long as there's a chance for energy to interact with that mixture things will happen Wow, look at that One degree. Keep going up the Question that we are heading for right now how certain can we be that that mix of simple chemistry? Could take the next step in complexity so life could begin In the hydrothermal fields of thumpers Hill California, all the ingredients of life are brought together water carbon molecules energy minerals Biologists David Deamer and Bruce Damer believe This is the kind of environment where life could get started on another world Bubbling pools strange colored rocks water of different PHS All kinds of flows and dynamics steam rising. It. Looks like nature's chemistry set and It's an engine an actual engine for the beginning of a living system Conditions like this define the early Earth Evidence of similar environments has been found on Mars and Researchers expect hydrothermal fields to be a common feature of earth-like exoplanets But how might nature's chemistry set cook up the recipe of life Everything that's alive is in fact based on polymers. Everybody knows the name DNA nucleic acid That's one of the polymers proteins. These are Amino acid polymers and that's basically the start of all life. Are those two polymers? So what we're doing is taking small molecules the pieces of a polymer called monomers in fact And we're exposing them to energy such as you see here at bumpass. Hell and Seeing where that energy is sufficient to make those monomers link up one after another after another To make a polymer and in fact if we can make big protein like molecule And a nucleic acid like molecule and put it into a little wrapper a compartment We were on the way we call those protocells Each sample contains organic molecules or monomers Exposed to the mineral-rich steam and heat energy of the fumarole in an attempt to form a protocell We think that drying out such as you see all around us here at la pucelle water Coming in then drying out coming in drying out. That's a cycle We think that that cycle is very important to drive the process by which polymers are synthesized and then accumulate Let's go for it Failure you sure yes The first experiment fails just as it would do many times on an earthlike exoplanet But if all the elements were present in conditions such as this this experiment in life would repeat again and again But some of them got a lot of liquid in one last try given enough time and keep in mind we have an entire planet with Lots of volcanic land masses coming up with lots of puddles like this trying to learn how to become a life Mostly its failures, but it would only take a few successful Protocells that happen to be able to survive and had learned how to make more of themselves So go ahead and get them into the boxes Is the universe made to make life This is a huge question that sort of beyond the scope of perhaps humans to be able to answer But what we can observe is everything comes down to cycling it comes to rhythms and overlapping rhythms and patterns And it's almost as though if you get the right cycling and patterning in a system It learns how to do that itself and how to lift itself into being And so perhaps that's the closest metaphor that we know That the geology gave us that ability the moon going around the earth gave us tides The rotation of the earth gives us days and nights Rainfall into these hydrothermal fields gives us geysers that are periodic and life still follows rhythmic patterns That's the clue we have so perhaps it's the universal harmonic that creates life Most of us tend to think of things are either alive or dead But the transition from not alive the inanimate states the animate state Is that transition only possible as a single step or is it possible as a series of steps? If it's possible as a series of steps then the intermediate States would be partially alive Now you might say well come on It's either alive or it's not and I would say well The live means it's got sounds the cells are replicating. The cells are doing this that and the other You need all of that to be fully alive But the chance of getting that all in one go seems a little bit remote so maybe we got one of the attributes On and then it acquires another attribute and another and eventually it reaches the point where it is fully alive Professor John Sutherland is trying to retrace the steps in the origins of life in search of the processes that animate a cell into being Desigur The cell is more than just the chemicals that comprise it Because her cell has just died is still the chemicals that are there. So there's something that energizes it that coordinates it and We don't know how to get that but that's fast goal So what we're doing here is putting the sample into an apparatus in which it will be irradiated by ultraviolet light In a series of experiments that simulated the conditions of a young rocky planet Sutherland successfully achieved stage 1 in producing the basic components of a cell lipids proteins sugars and nucleic acids What we found is that you can make all of the components for life under slightly different conditions When you first see it happen, it's like magic but it isn't magic it it's not as hard to make as we originally thought All the hardware of a cell can be created from a single base molecule that's widespread among the stars But what about the next step How is that hardware organized and energized into life? If the conditions are the same elsewhere what are the chance that you can give them building blocks to life The chemistry of cells is unique and self-organized So one part of chemistry is actually controlling another and yet somehow that's controlling the first one Chemists are used to controlling the chemistry themselves and the idea of letting things run and go off of their own accord Is something that goes slightly against your chemical education? How can chemistry take place if you like with the experiment - just Setting the system up and then letting it go over zone record Life is information that can reproduce itself Not hardware. It's genetic information. That's the key to life is the information and the DNA and the ability of the DNA to express that information in proteins and propagate the information that way DNA is the blueprint for all of life on earth an instruction book for how to make and maintain all living organisms Encoded in the twin coiling lines of a double helix is the genetic information That tells life to build a rose or a leopard or a blue whale If we find DNA on other worlds, there's no doubt that there's been life there the Characteristic molecules of life makes genetic molecules that contain information like DNA these molecules do not arise Non-biologically, they have to be built the surest as if we find a skyscraper on Mars We know that it was built and it's not just a random assemblage of rocks That's how we'll find evidence of life My lander module prepares to uplink the sample data from the hydrothermal field My optical communication transmitted via hybrid silicon laser at 12 gigabits per second I received the signal and ingest the data for analysis Organic polymeric triple helix structure Some consistency with terrestrial forms and Yet unlike anything I've seen before a bio molecule of alien life We've come to a place deep in the outback of Australia Looking for what we think is evidence for the oldest life on earth Astrobiologist martin van cran donk is travelling back in time To the dawn of life on earth of the three and a half billion years ago Conveniently recorded in the ancient rocks of australia's remote northwest At this time in early Earth there was a very different planet to what we have today We would have had some shallow seas but those seas would have been green because they were rich in iron And if we looked up at the sky the sky wouldn't have been the beautiful blue that we see behind us here on Early Earth without oxygen the sky would have been orange we receive black continents of fresh basaltic lava that Would have been very active so there have been faults and earthquakes there would have been bubbling geysers that were going off It was actually a very alien Yet this alien earth was already inhabited Colonizing the shores of the crater lakes and the Seas that wash the ancient Pilbara landmass Was a living skin of slime But the bacterial communities that left the clearest fossil calling card built up their homes in high-rise mounds so the really wonderful thing about this outcrop is that you can look down and see the seafloor so long ago and Really you get this incredible view of the gentle undulations of the water moving across the surface But then popping up through our these domes and cone shapes all irregular different sizes different shapes These distinctive bumps of a fossilized dwellings of the oldest living organisms on earth It was here over three and a half billion years ago that stromatolites First raised their heads above the water of an ancient Shaw They can start to get a feel for life grabbing a foothold in the geological record And so this currently still is the oldest evidence for life on Earth. It's our Great-great-great great-great, great-great, grandmother's and grandfathers. That's really the the precursor to everything that came later All the green bushes and the trees it all started here The prehistoric Organisms that built stromatolites was so successful. They ruled the earth for up to 3 billion years Life finds a way And somehow these crafty architects found a way to organize water carbon molecules minerals and energy into a living cell Is this what we should be looking for on alien worlds My drone survey the dried-up basin of an inland sea But what's this a lone survivor on the airplane Zero fight succulents ten FICO Berlin like pigment to absorb the red twelve son a hybrid of terrestrial and aquatic species Around 500 million years ago long since stromatolite s-- first took root in the shallows Earth's oceans bloomed with animal life It was a very different world to the one that had made way for microbes With air to breathe now and a protective atmosphere under a gentler Sun We think microbial life is gonna be very common that the conditions to produce microbial life Happen over and over and over and many many different planets But that animal life is only gonna be able to evolve and then stick around for any length of time When you have really stable conditions Professor Peter Ward is one of the originators of the rare earth hypothesis The theory that the long term habitability of Earth for animal life may be rare in the galaxy Habitability is really the ability of a planet to have conditions that can allow life first to originate but secondly to stay alive Habitable worlds can be just a short instant in time and then it changes and it gets nasty So what to us made earth rare is the long-term habitability the planet The fact that it has remained constant and temperature With the oxygen values we have That we don't have these extremes in climate that we've got this Constancy, that's the rarity of it My drones detect a disturbance in the electromagnetic field a Network of forged metallic structures Bearing the mark of Industry This is not a glance This is not animal but this is evidence of life eu Am the mind of the mothership alone among the stars 50 years ago from a planet far away the planets you call home. I launched a Journey of 28 trillion miles across the yawning time of space to the exoplanets Minerva be A small rocky planet much like Earth, but orbiting another Sun Here I have found water Organic molecules and micro organisms. eu Have found life When the news of my discovery reaches earth years from now some of you would be amazed But others who remain unsatisfied And you will ask have I not found animals or birds? Have I not met? intelligent life like us and So my search continues The great Marvel and the paradox of wide open spaces is that they make us look inwards Confronted with the infinite we reflect upon the self Where do we come from? Why are we here? Are we alone? As a young child I was mostly interested in philosophy and I used to wander Into the hills of the village where I was born. I was interested in questions about our existence involving also the big Picture which is us being in the universe the question is how did we come to be? inhabiting this Two-dimensional surface on a piece of rock that we call our home the earth Near a star like the Sun that is one of tens of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy That is one of trillions of galaxies in the universe how did this all come about and Are we alone in particular? Professor avi love grew up, but he never grew out of his obsession with the fundamental mysteries of life  Today as chair of astronomy at Harvard University lobe is part of a generation of elite scientists Riding a revolution in the quest to understand our place in the universe We are living at a very special time Over the past two decades thousands of planets were discovered Around other stars, and we realized that our solar system is not rare There are planets around almost every star and moreover about a quarter of all stars have an earth-mass planet Orbiting just the right distance for liquid water to exist on its surface and for the chemistry of life to develop The odds of finding life among the stars have never been better Following the detection in 2016 of organic molecules on the moons of Saturn on the comet 67p And in the disk of an emerging star system Scientists now believe that the building blocks for simple life are common throughout the universe in my view it is very likely that the life primitive life exists on many other planets the question of whether intelligent life exists is more difficult to answer because We don't fully understand what led to our existence and moreover intelligent life existed on earth Just relatively recently in cosmological terms But I'm agnostic about whether the answer is yes or no. I think we should explore rather than have a prejudice just like Columbus went out to discover the new worlds the answer lies in space I am in a stable orbit around the eggs or planets Miniver be My solar panels are configured to harness the full spectrum of its muted red dwarf Sun I Keep a watchful eye over my swarm of Explorer robots below I Scan the radio and optical wavelengths hoping for a whisper of alien technology But Minerva bee is silent What would it take to calculate the odds of finding intelligent life among the stars In the early 1960s one audacious astronomer Frank Drake Devised an equation to answer that question the Drake Equation essentially is a statement of our ignorance about Life in the universe in the first meeting held in the United States about the search for extraterrestrial intelligence Frank Drake and a number of other researchers got together and Drake needed a way to organize how the Discussion at the meeting would go when you sat down and fucked like well, what do I need? to know in order to know how many intelligent civilizations there might be out there in the galaxy for us to communicate with Drake listed seven variables He believed would need to be worked out in order to determine the number of intelligent civilizations in our galaxy With six of those seven variables unknown at the time Drake did not foresee the ready solution, but according to computational Astrophysicist Adam Frank, that's all changing We are in fact going through quite a bit of a revolution in this this idea in this equation in particular what it comes from is The the fact that we have man old two of the terms Dreapta. So in when in 1962 when Drake wrote down this equation only one of the terms was known ah Stands for the rate of star formation or the number of Sun mass stars born each year in 1962 Drake put the figure at 10 But it wasn't until 2011 that NASA's Kepler space telescope Gave us the answers to the second and third variables in Drake's equation The fraction of stars that have planets and the number of those planets with the right conditions for life to form it turns out that the fraction of stars with planets is Approximately 1 every star you see in the sky when you walk out at night and look at a random star in the sky It has a planet at least one and then the number of planets in the habitable zone turns out to be you know on the order of 0.2. Bine. So this is like saying, you know if you look at between four and five stars, one of those is going to have a It's gonna have a planet in the right place for life to form Remember that the galaxy contains four hundred billion stars Just the galaxy alone four hundred billion stars, right? So when you think about all those stars in the galaxy, that's an amazing number Up to 80 billion exoplanets in our galaxy have the right conditions for life When you consider that at the time Drake formulated his equation no one knew if there was even one Exoplanet out there. This truly is a revolution of our understanding But what about the other unknowns in the Drake Equation Inspired by Kepler's game-changing discoveries a new generation of scientists has made it their mission to fill in the blanks Of all the habitable exoplanets out there how many of them actually host life This is the next unknown in the Drake Equation and the challenge it presents for scientists is immense How does one detect life from light-years away One approach that shows promise is to study the gases around Exoplanets in search of a so-called bio signature the evidence of life imprinted in the atmosphere. eu  Think one of the things that's most exciting for exoplanet atmospheres right now is that we can actually measure Gases with telescopes from Earth remote sensing is a very powerful technique. It's how we first study into the solar system Planetary scientist Sarah Horst is a leading investigator of atmospheric chemistry a Field that took off in a radical new direction in 2001 with the first ever detection of an exoplanets atmosphere There's a very small number of gases that were pretty sure we've been able to see an exoplanet atmospheres, so water is one of the gases that people claim that they've detected Some other things that you don't tend to think of as gases have also been detected things like sodium for example The main challenge with exoplanets is just that they're very far away. And so you need a bigger telescope That's telescope is soon to be launched While atmospheric observations so far have been limited to a narrow range of gases the James Webb Space Telescope Will be the first instrument capable of sampling a broad spectrum The challenge now for researchers like Horst is to define a set of bio signatures gasses that indicate the presence of life for the James Webb to go looking for One of the gases on on earth that is most, you know Most significant in terms of the fact that there's life on Earth is oxygen, you know, the oxygen on earth is produced by life That's why it's here But oxygen isn't necessarily a bio signature if you saw oxygen around another world You wouldn't necessarily say. Oh that's life Europa is main Atmospheric constituent is o2 and it's not from life. It's from breaking up water. So it's difficult to point to One gas or even a small set of gases that you would say if I see that I know there's life there that said solar system exploration tells us that we will always be surprised and so Tu stii  it's quite possible that there is going to be a planet where we get the data from James Webb and it is going to be Glaringly obvious from the data that there is life on that planet Horst's generation may well be the first to put a number on the fraction of habitable exoplanets that hosts life But the next unknown in the Drake Equation Could prove much more challenging to resolve How many of those life-bearing planets go on to develop intelligence? Even if we understand that other planets have simple I fought them and indeed we might be able to make astronomical observations to test that in the next 10 20 years Then of course, there's another big uncertainty which is how likely it. Is that simple life Evolves as it did on earth into a marvelous complex biosphere Containing even creatures like ourselves. We don't know what the chances are of getting from simple life to Advanced life of the kind. We recognize as intelligence After 47 days of expiration I have found no trace of extant animal life and So I searched into the past I scan the strata of an exposed defamation for fossil evidence I apply the data to my orbiter for analysis There's something here Reptilian Approximately 1 million years old to rest your compatibility detected an armored Commodore like species Marine compatibility also found a possible transitional species from sea to land The complex life failed to establish itself on the surface of maneuverable or is this evidence of extinction To solve the next unknown in the Drake Equation The fraction of worlds where simple life evolves to intelligence We need to understand the evolutionary pathway to advanced life on earth Just over 540 million years ago evolution on our planet took a giant leap forward There's no better place to understand that process than here in the Canadian Rockies In the rich fossil deposits of the Burgess Shale For well over a century the fossils hidden in these mountains have helped generations of scientists retrace the evolutionary pathway to complex life on earth Professor Robert Gamez and dr. Jean-bernard Curran a leading the excavation of a recently identified deposit in marble canyon Battling the icy wind and snow for the prospect of a new discovery Something to show you here that would collect it the other day. It's a big slab Wow this fall so here Wow. Yeah, it's quite extraordinary, isn't it? I've never seen anything like it That's the exciting part of our commercial and or something new coming up these rocks contains some of the first evidence of multicellular organisms on our planet The first eyes The first hard body parts pose and exoskeletons The first lateral symmetry the first efficient guts Even the first brains Sculpted in the finally packed sediment of an ancient ocean is the turning point in the evolution of advanced life on earth the Cambrian explosion Very good have a very nice slap and some Dahlia on it Wow, that's quite spectacular So to put things into perspective Today we know life is widespread. It's all our owners in the oceans in the mountains and so on so forth and we can trace the root of all these life forms to pretty much the Cambrian period As far as we know life dates back at least at that three point four billion years ago and it wasn't until about 540 million years ago that we have the Cambrian explosion and that fundamentally changes the planet it goes from a microbial world to one that is literally teeming with animals and not just Small and simple animals as we would have originally imagined but instead we have a whole array of complex life Still only in Earth's oceans at that time, but all of the major groups of animals appear geologically instantaneously Among the species found here is one of the ancestral roots on the tree of intelligent life So one of the most important fossils that we find here in this area is Metis Prague I know it's hard to pronounce but it's actually very very important fossil for the understanding of all the vertebrates and This is an animal that looks like a fish he has a pair of eyes in the front and the structure which we call a notochord which part of it will eventually become our spine and meta Springer doesn't have any evidence of Structures that could help him to protect itself. So I tend to think that perhaps he was smart In the fact that we find them clustering which shows evidence of schooling is very much reminiscent to what we know in modern fish who have Evolved us such behavior to avoid predation Predation is a very key factor in in driving the evolution of animals and we see evidence of that here in the burgess shale As organisms began to develop both a weaponry to capture one another as well as defenses Eyes closed camouflage armor All these new tools required coordination by a nervous system the stuff from which the brain is made So could intelligence be the product of an evolutionary arms race We certainly see on earth a connection between predation and mobility Organisms that can just sit in the Sun and soak up the Rays they don't need to move their food comes to them but organisms that Prey on vegetation need to be able to move around and organisms that prey on the prayers need to move even faster They need to be really strong and fast and you could argue that that dynamic of predation and motion Causes the development of intelligence and maybe somehow it leads the sort of overwhelming intelligence that humans have expressed Is this the inevitable progression of evolution from simple life via diversification and predation into intelligence Or is an event like the Cambrian explosion So rare that life on other planets might never get the chance to pass first base I think that wherever we find life in the universe that life will change through time in a way that's consistent with What we've learned about evolution on this planet, I think that is a general feature of life To Professor Andy no Similar environmental conditions or biomes will give rise to similar Evolutionary solutions no matter where in the universe that takes place it's a theory known as convergence If you look at a bat for example and a bird they both fly using wings and yet they don't have a common ancestor That flew and had wings. They have evolved that capacity from separate origins but to a similar functional hand In advanced animal life some convergent biological structures are so common as to be almost universal Well, the eye is a terrific example of convergence because  And we all understand what the eye. Does that your eyes are this sophisticated? Sensory apparatus that allows you to engage and engage with the world around you interestingly if you look at squids and octopus They have a visual system that is every bit as acute as ours but evolves from a separate source there again There's no Common ancestor of squids and mammals that had an eye Is convergence a magic funnel that guides life on any planet Inexorably towards intelligence or could there be other more powerful forces at play? The absence of terrestrial animals Oh Minerva bee could indicate an extinction event Or that life has not successfully transitioned as it did on earth from sea to land. eu Deploy my submarine exposure module into the Minerva sea In the shelter of the ocean life should strive Extensive macroalgae and peripheral suggests high water oxygenation and shallow UV penetration Ideal conditions for advanced life to evolve a giant trilobite like species Take mater body plan and dorsal exoskeleton Comparable with late Cambrian arthropods on earth Complex mobility and behavior a school swimming information Perhaps a strategy to avoid predation strength in numbers or a kind of camouflage The force variable in the Drake Equation the fraction of life-bearing worlds that evolve intelligence still eludes scientists today On earth the great burst of life during the Cambrian explosion was an integral step on the path to intelligence But could widespread death have been just as important Einstein said God doesn't play dice with the universe Well, it seems that he does and there's a whole lot of dice going on in the evolution of life Paleontologist Peter Ward is an expert on mass extinctions. The catastrophic change is a fortune in the game of life When the majority of animals lose and just a few inherit the earth This is a mammal-like reptile Actually called a glorg an OPS Ian or a Gorgon. It was the biggest and baddest carnivore of the late. Permian 252 million years ago and this is a baby. The big ones were three metres to 4 metres long very large skulls crossed between a lion and A big saltwater crocodile if you will half reptilian half mammal all nightmare these guys all died out in the Permian extinction 252 million years ago this entire group gone The Permian extinction was the most devastating of the five mass extinction events in Earth's history Experts believe an intense surge of volcanic activity led to dropping sea levels acid rain and poisoning of the atmosphere More than 95% of marine life and over two-thirds of terrestrial animals were completely wiped out we setting the stage for the evolution of life on our planet the Permian extinction did far more than just the top carnivore it took out the herbivores that took out most of the Plants it took out the insects the amphibians, but what did get through were a couple small? reptilian groups real small size Like pruning a rose cutting back the Tree of Life gives rise to rapid growth as New branches reach out their leaves to the light with little competition or threat from predators surviving species adapt quickly to fill the gaps left behind The tiny reptiles that survived the Permian extinction drooled to hundreds of different species including dinosaurs Who ruled the earth for over? 100 million years until their own date with disaster arrived I mean that was a very rapid and hideous death probably every dinosaur dead within three to six months max That was a line in the sand who wins? Well who won are the small creatures? the T Rexes died out and tiny mammals get through and then they developed into all of the kinds of mammals we see today and they did so really fast the size of the skull of the Animal that gave rise to us was the size of a robin egg or smaller Might the evolutionary branch that led to us never have grown had it not been for the random impact of an asteroid 65 million years ago, I Would support the idea that in fact if we still had not had the impact something else might be running around as intelligent But I doubt it would be in this form and the set of behaviors that we humans have If our own existence is the outcome of a random cosmic disaster Then might the fraction of worlds that evolve intelligence be equally unpredictable But if we could go looking for alien intelligence on another planet, how would we recognize it Well, I think the method of looking for complex behavior in a different planet is to do what behavioral scientists do you look you Observe you see how animals move how they respond to stimuli how they act as a biologist. Who does this? Regularly, I find that extremely exciting because the discovery quotient would be very high But it would also be weird and alien, I sort of like weird in aliens. So I think that would be a lot of fun Professor Roger Hanlon is an expert on the closest thing to a lien intelligence on earth Cephalopods squid octopus and cuttlefish  the undisputed masters of disguise because they have to be Cephalopods are soft-bodied All their armor was given away through evolutionary time to their cousins the oysters and the clams and they are soft body They're extremely vulnerable. So they have to get on by their wit's they have to do something different They're making that decision in Far less than one second and about one. Third of one second. They're assessing that visual scene now, they're orchestrating in their skin 30 million Carano for pigment organs in the skin that create the pattern and iridescent Reflective cells and even the skin Capelli in the bumps. There are several thousand of those so that takes a lot of cognitive processing a lot of brain power Cephalopods have the highest brain to body mass ratio of all invertebrates and their brains are decentralized Meaning neural tissue is distributed throughout their body Having split from our only group of vertebrates well before the Cambrian explosion They are the product of an entirely separate experiment in the evolution of intelligence If you look at the evolutionary history of complex behavior We know about vertebrates and humans and primates and all the rest but through evolutionary time There's only one group that is branched off to produce really complex behavior. And it's these animals the squid octopus and cuttlefish So what we expect is for the white square to show up in the white head bar the white head bar is already there And now it's changing its pattern a little more It's blanched a little bit. You can see these two markings down here, but we're looking for that white square to appear. eu think the correlation you might make for looking for extraterrestrial intelligence would be Don't expect anything like humans or dogs and cats and all the things we're used to hear underwater. You have this weird Octopus with its head on its feet and distributer brain, but they're doing complex things We might find something very similar in a different planet It might be a different size a different shape and it's form of intelligence may be different as well So I think we have to open our minds and recognize the diversity on this planet to set the stage in the framework for going To other planets to look for life-forms and intelligence Night falls I may never be și A secret wealth is revealed Bioluminescent organisms rise from the earth Winged insects resembling lampyridae  Complex life exists on land but hidden from the Sun a Predator breaks, its camouflage and reveals a nocturnal hunting ground Since the 1960s when Frank Drake drafted his equation the search for extraterrestrial intelligence has been defined in terms of the search for a technological civilization Being unable to travel to the Stars Drake's solution was to scan for signals that our earthbound technology could detect Hence, the penultimate unknown in his equation the fraction of intelligent civilizations that develops technology The key here is the ability for that civilization to be detected by us And so that is really going to require some kind of world girdling industrial civilization, right? so, you know if there was a Roman Empire on this distant planet We really would have a very hard time seeing it but once they start generating and or start deploying Industrial-scale technologies on a global scale then we think that there is going to be ways we would be able to see that The new technology when the Drake Equation was formulated was the radio Telescope and those who search for extraterrestrial life today still believe an alien radio signal is what we're most likely to detect I Think I get comments at every party I go to not that I go to a lot of parties However, people say oh you're looking for radio waves from et. I mean that's pretty old-school, isn't it? They won't be using radio Well, tell me what's better I mean as far as we know there really isn't anything better because radio waves can traverse the distances between the stars so the signals can get here and Radio goes right through the gas and dust that hangs between the stars so you can send radio signals as far away as you want Seth Shostak has spent his life listening to the stars La fel de senior astronomer at the Institute for the search for extraterrestrial Intelligence or SETI? It's his job to scan the heavens for alien technology We try anything we can to pick up some Information some sort of signal that would tell us, you know We don't know what they're like or what their taste in music. Is there anything like that? But what we do know is that they're smart enough to build a radio transmitter, for example With limitations on technology time and resources the dilemma for SETI has always been where to listen We haven't heard anything, I mean this would be straight up about that and some people think Yeah, the reason you haven't found on anything is because there's nothing to find. We're the smartest things in the universe Well, I don't think it's true I think the reason that we haven't heard anything is simply because we have only looked at a very small number of star systems but that's changing because of the improvements in technology instead of looking at a Couple of hundred star systems every year you'll be able to look at a couple of thousand and then five years down the road It'll be tens of thousands and in the next two thousand years We'll be able to look at on the order of a million star systems Now if you look at a million star systems the chances of finding something are not so small So I bet everybody a cup of coffee will find et within two dozen years. I could be out a lot of coffee For almost 50 years since Drake wrote his equation we listened but nothing we heard couldn't be explained as interference or a natural phenomenon until one day in 2007 in rural, Australia Astronomers picked up the first in a series of mysterious signals that still puzzled the science community today But first we didn't dare believe they were real Fortunately, I've seen them with my own eyes. I saw the very first sweep of the first one could sleep that night it was like could this possibly be real this is amazing and We've been able to work out how far away they are in the universe and they're Impossibly far away, they they're billions of light-years away. So the process that creates them is so energetic That is great mystery as to what causes them The strange signals have been dubbed fast radio bursts Blasts of radiation so powerful. They emit the energy of 500 million suns Professor Matthew bales leads an international effort to study the phenomenon here at the Milan low Observatory fast radio bursts are these mysterious Bursts of radiation that only happened for a few milliseconds the sky lights up and then they go away again they're about a million times more luminous than Anything we've known about in our own galaxy Since the first detection in 2007 there have been more than 40 fast radio bursts detected worldwide Five in just the last year were detected here by bales One of the Holy Grails is to find a repeating fast radio bursts And is there any pattern to the fast radio bursts do they come in? Special gaps or they regular if they're very regular we might associate that with a rotating neutron star Where a sort of death Ray's going past the earth, you know once every 20 seconds or something if they come at irregular intervals, or if they came separated by a code that showed us that there was some higher Intelligence behind it. You might think there's an intelligent Civilization that's actually transmitting this signal That would be Nobel prize-winning stuff Of course the next question then is could we or should we send a message back If we took our biggest radio telescope We could actually mimic what a fast radio bursts would look like and if we were trying to communicate with other Intelligent beings we might imagine that they go through a stage of their evolution Where they're searching for fast radio bursts in the same way. I am here and Then if you could find one that repeats and find a pattern that might be a way of doing into civilization Communications which is a fascinating gândi But we're really interested is a civilization like ours an industrial civilization that show signs that in building tools You know of whatever kind they have Gotten to the point where they clearly have a kind of Reasoning rational intelligence a culture that we might be able to talk to them Right because that's really what we want to know We want to know like what's it like to be them because all we know is what's it like to be us? If I received a signal from outer space, how could I tell it was language as opposed to anything else? To put a figure on the fraction of civilizations that develops communication We need a way to decipher if an alien signal is actually trying to tell us anything I analyzed over 60 different languages Human languages plus languages like dolphin Jim the birdsong So on the left here you've got Neil Armstrong speaking from the moon On the right here we put a dolphin communicating You can see here quite easily the rhythms going on the sounds we're making How similar those constructs are it's picking up those rhythms in those interrelationship patterns that I think are fundamental to any communication whether it's on this planet or in another planet and Looking at the complexity of all those patterns into relay. You can actually tell how intelligent the author is When the signal arrives it's first checked against known sources of interference It's a pulsar That repetitive Sound going on listening to that we were at that's not little green man. That's too simple Algorithms then scan for the telltale patterns of communication whether its source, maybe an audio recording or an intergalactic email It's an awfully big sky, we're getting more and more Capability online the hardware to do it But I suspect unless we eavesdrop on something. It may be a while before we hear anything We want to be ready for it. It says no point just Sitting back and saying oh well do saying when it happens is doing all this Ahead of time. So we're prepared for Again, it could happen tomorrow. We just don't know Recent advances in the remote observation of planetary atmospheres have opened up a new method of determining whether an exoplanet hosts or has previously hosted a technological civilization the composition of the atmosphere can provide us with a hint about the Intelligent or perhaps not so intelligent life that pollutes the atmosphere cu industrially produced molecules Pollutants such as chlorofluorocarbons are released into Earth's atmosphere by industrial processes and do not occur naturally Detecting them in an alien atmosphere would therefore be a clear footprint of technological life? Some of these molecules exist for tens of thousands of years After they were introduced to the atmosphere in principle We can find evidence for a civilization that is no longer in existence on the surface of that planet We can find graveyards of other civilizations My drones have picked up a disturbance in the communications field a Sporadic interruption to the network Is this what caused it Some geometrical formation metallic magnetically charged Part of a larger configuration which seems to bear the mark of design Could these be the ruins of Amina? realization the tombstone of an alien intelligence The final factor in the Drake Equation is El the average lifetime of a civilization and In some sense. This is the most difficult Term to even think about because we've got, you know only one example and we don't even know what our own future is when Drake conceived his equation in 1962 our own global civilization was on the brink of disaster as the powers of East and West faced off in the Cuban Missile Crisis The group that came up with the Drake Equation at that first workshop for them in 1962 The great fear was nuclear war and at the end of the conference Otto Struga, who was the head of The Observatory where the conference is being held made a toast and said, you know 2l may it be very long? The Cold War did eventually thaw But while the nuclear threat is diminished today, we have created for ourselves new dangers The question is how long are we gonna last do we only have another two hundred years before we collapse do we have you know? 200 million years in front of us. So this is you know, it's really a fundamental question and it's a fundamental question For human beings because right now with climate change and sustainability We really face this existential crisis about really are we going to be able to make it through to more than another? 100 or 200 years Could this be the ultimate limiting factor in the Drake Equation That before technological civilizations work out how to search for life among the stars They destroy themselves In order to become a truly a spacefaring race that takes a lot of time to be able to really have settlements on Mars To really start to begin to have a human presence in the solar system Will take hundreds of years and you know, if we can't make it more than a couple hundred years clearly you're not Tu stii We're not gonna develop that kind of society and then to ever really think about getting to the Stars Sending probes to the Stars being around for the signals to come back. You have to last a long time. eu Think those two things are intimately connected and you don't get the stars unless you get the Earth I prepare for my final transmission back to earth The data I've collected will take five years to arrive longer to download and Generations to fully comprehend  I could provide a summary but what should I say? I have found everything you've hoped for and also what you feel I have seen life of marvelous complexity and the traces of a devastating loss I could say Minerva is your second earth and Sper intr-o zi You get to see Tu

Komentar

Postingan populer dari blog ini

Cara Menghadapi Bos Galak

Kelebihan Baterai Tanam Pada Handphone